Bukaksan’s Ecosystem

Bukaksan, the guardian mountain of Gyeongbokgung Palace, is a granite mountain surrounded by city walls and vegetation along the ridges. The pine trees on the mountains in particular had been managed with special protection from the beginning of the Joseon Dynasty. Since the pine forest had been neglected in the Japanese colonial period, however, the mountain now has hardly any pine trees left except on its ridges. Bukaksan has become a natural space where plants have been well-preserved, left untouched by humans for nearly 40 years. As of now, it has 208 species of plants, 81 of which are trees. Tall trees include pines, wild pear trees, snowbells, and wild cherry trees, with shrubs such as azaleas, royal azaleas, wax trees, and Laceshrubs. Most of the needle-leaf trees are pines, whereas the broadleaf trees are mixed with various species such as oak trees. Around the city walls are acacias, Populus tomentiglandulosa, pitch pines that were planted to prevent soil runoff, and white pines that were recently planted as landscaping trees. The wild pear tree colony grows around Sukjeongmun Gate, a unique vegetation in Bukaksan that is hardly seen in other areas. Since there are many tree species supplying bird food, Bukaksan has a variety of bird species.

  • Flower of tree of heaven

  • Acorn of white oak

  • Flower of forsythia

  • lower of Maakia amurensis

  • Flower of maple tree

  • Flower of snowbell

  • Leaf of pitch pine

  • Fruit of Rose of Sharon

  • Fruit of ash tree

  • Flower of yulan

  • Flower of peach tree

  • Fruit of three-flower maple

  • Fruit of ash tree

  • Wild mulberry

  • Acorn

  • Flower of ginger plant

  • Cone of pine tree

  • Leaf of kalopanax

  • Fruit of alder tree

  • Fruit of nut pine

  • Fruit of wax tree

  • Azalea flower

  • Fruit of wild pear tree

  • Flower of boxwood tree